quarta-feira, 30 de outubro de 2013

Burrowing Owl

Burrowing Owl

The Burrowing Owl is a strigiforme owl in the Strigidae family. With the scientific name cunicularia ("small miner") is so named because it lives in holes dug in the ground. Live at least 9 years in the wild habitat. They usually live in fields, pastures, salt marshes, deserts, plains, beaches and airports. They are also known by the names of caburé-of-termite, caburé-of-field, owl-cheap, owl-of-field, owl-mining, Screech Burrowing, Tropical Screech-hole, Tropical Screech-field, Guede, urucuera, urucuréia, urucuriá, owl-cupinzeira (some cities of Goiás) and capotinha.

Small bird, the average size is 23 cm. It has a round head, without plumes and the eyes are placed side by side on the same plane. The eyebrows are white and yellow eyes. The color is pink earth, mimetic may present plumage in Sienna caused by red earth soils (adventitious coloring). Unlike most owls the male is slightly larger than the female and females are usually darker than males. It has smooth and quiet flight. She has to turn the neck because their large eyes are placed side by side on the same plane. This arrangement provides the front owl binocular vision (sees an object with both eyes at the same time). This means that the owl can see objects in three dimensions, ie, height, width and depth. The eyes of the Burrowing Owl are quite large in some sub-species of owls are even greater than the brain itself, in order to improve its efficiency in low light conditions, capturing and processing the best available light. In addition to its privileged view, the Burrowing has a great hearing, able to locate its prey with just this sense. They have tufts on the ear, have a facial disc flattened. His brow is white, has a white patch on his chin that resembles a big mouth drawn. Adult owls have a strong color tone, have the chest and belly with brown coloring, color traces of earth, brown variations, which resemble spots and bars. Young owls are similar in appearance, but are gorduchinhas, desengonçadas, with disheveled feathers and light coloring. His chest is completely white with no brown variations, have a yellow bar going across the upper wing. Males and females are similar in size and appearance, but adult males are slightly larger and the females usually darker than the male. The greatest enemy of the Burrowing Owl is the man, since, as a bird of prey, this species has almost no natural predators. However, the harmful traffic cars on the beach vegetation is the main factor in the destruction of the burrowing owl, along with other animal species the beach that make up the food chain, because as they passed over the mouth of the nests, these vehicles soterram the tunnel, killing mother and puppies suffocated under the sand layer in which they are.

It is a small carnivorous predator with-insectivorous habit and is considered general by consuming the most abundant prey according to the season, having preference for rodents. Consumed insect orders are: Coleoptera (beetles), Orthoptera (crickets and grasshoppers), Diptera, Hymenoptera. Among the consumed vertebrates are represented by: roedentia, Marsupialia, amphibia, reptiles squamata, microquiroptero (true bats).

Reproduction of Burrowing Owl begins between March or April. Makes its nest in termite mounds, armadillo holes and holes in the sand in coastal regions, costumando dig tunnels up to 2 meters and line the bottom with dry grass. The couple takes turns, widening the hole, dig a horizontal gallery using the feet and beak and finally lining the nest cavity with dry grass. The pits have around 1.5 to 3 meters deep and 30 to 90 inches wide. Around accumulated manure and feeds on insects attracted by the smell. Lay on average 6-11 eggs; The most common number is 7 to 9 eggs. Incubation lasts 28-30 days and is performed only by the female. While the female lays the eggs, the male provides food and protection for future offspring. Care creates them, while still in the nest are male task. The chicks leave the nest about 44 days and begin to hunt insects when they are 49 to 56 days. The pups when they listen the alert, enter the nest while the adults fly to exposed landings and decisively attack any source of danger to the children. Can defend the nest, flying towards a potential predator, including people away at the last moment, displayed several times vocalizing and amazing invaders like dogs and cats.

Often live in camps, Savannas, grasslands, salt marshes, plains, beaches, airports and vacant lots in cities. Owl terrestrial, have diurnal and nocturnal habits, but is active, especially at dusk, when he makes use of his great hearing. Has limited visual field, but this deficiency is overcome by the ability to rotate the head up to 270 degrees, which helps to focus on.
Occupies environments altered by human activities, including cities and airstrips or airports. The Burrowing Owl has a peculiar behavior, and the own made by owls, to be seen during the day and stay inn, standing in exposed locations or on the ground, on poles, logs, walls, etc. on top of cactus Has a habit of getting on one leg, which is not copied by other owls. Use a hole not only for nesting, but to rest, hide, as a refuge during the day and build nests, usually occupied by a couple. It is a shy owl, but is slightly tolerant of human presence. Cava their own holes with the help of the feet and beak, even getting all dirty in the construction of the woodwork, but she prefers the holes already made, abandoned by other animals such as armadillos, prairie dogs, badgers or ground squirrels . When the spring came, the male Burrowing choose or dig a hole, usually in low grass areas where secure with insects and small rodents ease in the ground. The couple takes turns, widening the hole, digging a horizontal gallery using the feet and beak and, finally, lining the nest cavity with dry grass. The owls were observed in colonies, with a small area of hole to hole. Such groupings may be a response to an abundance of holes and food or an adaptation for mutual defense. The members of the colony can alert to the approach of predators and join and run. These owls are wont to collect a wide variety of materials to line its nest. The most common material is manure, which is placed within the chamber and around the nest entrance. It was believed that the owl did it to cover up the smell of eggs and chicks in order to protect them from predators such as badgers Americans. However, it was discovered a more nutritious and creative use. The burrows with manure contain ten times more beetle-the-manure than owls that do not use manure. This is because the beetles, whose own nidificadora activity consists of finding manure to lay their eggs end up being attracted by burrowing. Thus, manure provides easy food for incubators females and, of course, also for males themselves, who spend most of their time protecting the holes of the nests and therefore have no opportunity to hunt. This manure is also used to help control the microclimate inside the pit, not leaving too hot. At any sign of danger, the burrowing owl emit a loud, strong and strident sound. This alarm is given during the day, drawing attention to the owl. The pups when they listen the alert, enter the nest while the adults fly to exposed landings and decisively attack any source of danger to the children. They also make other sounds that are described as blows and screams, which is closer to "piá, twitter, piaaar". While burrowing emit such sounds are typically moving the head downwards and upwards. The puppies also make sounds: when disturbed, producing a sound reminiscent of a rattlesnake, so amazing predators.

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